Filed under: Indonesia Tourism
Bandung is the capital of West Java in Indonesia. Bandung is 180 kilometers southeast from Jakarta. Although it has a population of over two million the pace of city life is slower than Jakarta’s. Today Bandung has a population of 2 million people, Bandung area an estimated 4 million. Bandung is situated on a plateau 768 meters above sea level with a cool climate throughout the year. Bandung is the most European city of Java. The raining season starts in Bandung a little bit earlier, then the rest of Indonesia. Normally the raining season in Indonesia is from October till May, the peak of the raining season is in January. The dry season is from June until August, temperature is then 25-30 degrees Celsius during the day. In the morning, the sun is almost shining every day, but in the afternoon many times it gets cloudy, for sunbathing we have to wake up early from 6.30 the sun is already there. In the evening when the sun is down the temperature has drops. The average temperature in Bandung is 22 degrees Celsius; the weather is pleasant all year round.
There are short drives up to the mountain resorts of Lembang and the Bosscha Observatory, and higher to the volcanic crater of Tangkuban Perahu, the only crater in Java accessible all the way by car as far as its rim. It is an awe-inspiring sight of emanating sulfur fumes. Descent into all the volcano’s 12 craters is only possible with the aid of an experienced guide, because of the presence of suffocating gases at certain spots.
Just a 15 minutes drive from Tangkuban Perahu is a hot springs resort. Here we can swim in warm mineral water pools, good for healing skin problems. The resort provides visitors with a bar, restaurants, tennis courts and cottage style hotels overlooking a beautiful mountain-scope.
In Bandung, try to see the “Wayang Golek” wooden puppet show and hear the “Angklung” bamboo orchestra, as well as the classical Sundanese gamelan and dances. Several institutes of higher education are located here, including the country’s prestigious Bandung Institute of Technology.
In 1488, the area now named Bandung was the capital of the Kingdom of Pajajaran. During colonial times, the government of the Dutch East Indies built a supply road connecting Batavia (now Jakarta), Bogor, Cianjur, Bandung, Sumedang and Cirebon. This event was very important for the growth of Bandung. In the 1930s the Dutch East Indies government planned for Bandung to become the capital of the Dutch East Indies due to its location, however World War II disrupted these plans.
It is not known exactly when Bandung city was built. However, contrary to the beliefs of some the city was not originally built by the orders of Daendels, the Dutch East Indies Governor General, but by the orders of ‘Bupati’ R.A. Wiranatakusumah II. The Dutch colonial powers built wide tree-lined boulevards, villas, gardens, and fountains, earning Bandung the nickname of “Parijs van Java”, the Paris of Java, in the early 20th century. Many of these structures survive to today, and can be seen along the road leading to the Dago area north of the city.
After Indonesian independence, Bandung was named as the provincial capital of West Java. Bandung was the site of the Bandung Conference which met April 18-April 24, 1955 with the aim of promoting economic and cultural cooperation among the African and Asian countries, and to counter the threat of colonialism or neocolonialism by the United States, the Soviet Union, or other imperialistic nations.
Filed under: Arts & Architecture | Tags: architecture, history, Modern, style
Some historians see the evolution of Modern architecture as a social matter, closely tied to the project of Modernity and thus the Enlightenment. The Modern style developed, in their opinion, as a result of social and political revolutions.
Others see Modern architecture as primarily driven by technological and engineering developments, and it is true that the availability of new building materials such as iron, steel, and glass drove the invention of new building techniques as part of the Industrial Revolution. In 1796, Shrewsbury mill owner Charles Bage first used his ‘fireproof‘ design, which relied on cast iron and brick with flag stone floors. Such construction greatly strengthened the structure of mills, which enabled them to accommodate much bigger machines. Due to poor knowledge of iron’s properties as a construction material, a number of early mills collapsed. It was not until the early 1830s that Eaton Hodgkinson introduced the section beam, leading to widespread use of iron construction, this kind of austere industrial architecture utterly transformed the landscape of northern Britain, leading to the description of places like Manchester and parts of West Yorkshire as “Dark satanic mills”.
The Crystal Palace by Joseph Paxton at the Great Exhibition of 1851 was an early example of iron and glass construction; possibly the best example is the development of the tall steel skyscraper in Chicago around 1890 by William Le Baron Jenney and Louis Sullivan. Early structures to employ concrete as the chief means of architectural expression (rather than for purely utilitarian structure) include Frank Lloyd Wright’s Unity Temple, built in 1906 near Chicago, and Rudolf Steiner’s Second Goetheanum, built from 1926 near Basel, Switzerland.
Other historians regard Modernism as a matter of taste, a reaction against eclecticism and the lavish stylistic excesses of Victorian Era and Edwardian Art Nouveau. Note that the Russian word for Art Nouveau, “Модерн”, and the Spanish word for Art Nouveau, “Modernismo” are cognates of the English word “Modern” though they carry different meanings.
Whatever the cause, around 1900 a number of architects around the world began developing new architectural solutions to integrate traditional precedents (Gothic, for instance) with new technological possibilities. The work of Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright in Chicago, Victor Horta in Brussels, Antoni Gaudi in Barcelona, Otto Wagner in Vienna and Charles Rennie Mackintosh in Glasgow, among many others, can be seen as a common struggle between old and new. An early use of the term in print around this time, approaching its later meaning, was in the title of a book by Otto Wagner.
A key organization that spans the ideals of the Arts and Crafts and Modernism as it developed in the 1920s was the Deutscher Werkbund (German Work Federation) a German association of architects, designers and industrialists. It was founded in 1907 in Munich at the instigation of Hermann Muthesius. Muthesius was the author of a three-volume “The English House” of 1905, a survey of the practical lessons of the English Arts and Crafts movement and a leading political and cultural commentator. The purpose of the Werkbund was to sponsor the attempt to integrate traditional crafts with the techniques of industrial mass production. The organization originally included twelve architects and twelve business firms, but quickly expanded. The architects include Peter Behrens, Theodor Fischer (who served as its first president), Josef Hoffmann and Richard Riemerschmid. Joseph August Lux, an Austrian-born critic, helped formulate its agenda.
 Modernism as dominant style
By the 1920s the most important figures in Modern architecture had established their reputations. The big three are commonly recognized as Le Corbusier in France, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius in Germany. Mies van der Rohe and Gropius were both directors of the Bauhaus, one of a number of European schools and associations concerned with reconciling craft tradition and industrial technology.
Frank Lloyd Wright‘s career, in which he built more than Mies, Le Corbusier and Gropius combined, parallels and influences the work of the European modernists, particularly via the Wasmuth Portfolio, but he refused to be categorized with them claiming that “they” copied his ideas. Wright was a major influence on both Gropius (founder of the Bauhaus) and van der Rohe, however, as well as on the whole of organic architecture. Gropius claimed that his “bible” for forming the Bauhaus was 100 Frank Lloyd Wright drawings that the architect shared with Germany over a decade prior to this point. Many architects in Germany believed that Wright’s life would be wasted in the United States, since the US wasn’t ready for his architecture. Just as many European architects saw Wright’s Larkin Building (1904) in Buffalo, Unity Temple (1905) in Oak Park, and the Robie House (1910) in Chicago as some of the first examples of modern architecture in the 20th Century. It would be 2-3 decades later before the European architects would bring their version back to the United States.
In 1932 came the important MOMA exhibition, the International Exhibition of Modern Architecture, curated by Philip Johnson. Johnson and collaborator Henry-Russell Hitchcock drew together many distinct threads and trends, identified them as stylistically similar and having a common purpose, and consolidated them into the International style.
This was an important turning point. With World War II the important figures of the Bauhaus fled to the United States, to Chicago, to the Harvard Graduate School of Design, and to Black Mountain College. While Modern architectural design never became a dominant style in single-dwelling residential buildings, in institutional and commercial architecture Modernism became the pre-eminent, and in the schools (for leaders of the profession) the only acceptable, design solution from about 1932 to about 1984.
Architects who worked in the International style wanted to break with architectural tradition and design simple, unornamented buildings. The most commonly used materials are glass for the facade, steel for exterior support, and concrete for the floors and interior supports; floor plans were functional and logical. The style became most evident in the design of skyscrapers. Perhaps its most famous manifestations include the United Nations headquarters (Le Corbusier, Oscar Niemeyer, Sir Howard Robertson), the Seagram Building and the Toronto-Dominion Centre (Ludwig Mies van der Rohe), and Lever House (Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill). A prominent residential example is the Lovell House (Richard Neutra) in Los Angeles.
Detractors of the International style claim that its stark, uncompromisingly rectangular geometry is dehumanising. Le Corbusier once described buildings as “machines for living”, but people are not machines and it was suggested that they do not want to live in machines. Even Philip Johnson admitted he was “bored with the box.” Since the early 1980s many architects have deliberately sought to move away from rectilinear designs, towards more eclectic styles. During the middle of the century, some architects began experimenting in organic forms that they felt were more human and accessible. Mid-century modernism, or organic modernism, was very popular, due to its democratic and playful nature. Alvar Aalto and Eero Saarinen were two of the most prolific architects and designers in this movement, which has influenced contemporary modernism.
Although there is debate as to when and why the decline of the modern movement occurred, criticism of Modern architecture began in the 1960s on the grounds that it was universal, sterile, elitist and lacked meaning. Its approach had become ossified in a “style” that threatened to degenerate into a set of mannerisms. Siegfried Giedion in the 1961 introduction to his evolving text, Space, Time and Architecture (first written in 1941), could begin “At the moment a certain confusion exists in contemporary architecture, as in painting; a kind of pause, even a kind of exhaustion.” At the Metropolitan Museum of Art, a 1961 symposium discussed the question “Modern Architecture: Death or Metamorphosis?” In New York, the coup d’état appeared to materialize in controversy around the Pan Am Building that loomed over Grand Central Station, taking advantage of the modernist real estate concept of “air rights“, In criticism by Ada Louise Huxtable and Douglass Haskell it was seen to “sever” the Park Avenue streetscape and “tarnish” the reputations of its consortium of architects: Walter Gropius, Pietro Belluschi and the builders Emery Roth & Sons. The rise of postmodernism was attributed to disenchantment with Modern architecture. By the 1980s, postmodern architecture appeared triumphant over modernism; however, postmodern aesthetics lacked traction and by the mid-1990s, a neo-modern (or hypermodern) architecture had once again established international pre-eminence. As part of this revival, much of the criticism of the modernists has been revisited, refuted, and re-evaluated; and a modernistic idiom once again dominates in institutional and commercial contemporary practice, but must now compete with the revival of traditional architectural design in commercial and institutional architecture; residential design continues to be dominated by a traditional aesthetic.
That is not to say that the residential sector in the United States is devoid of examples from the Modernist movement. The Case Study Houses are prime examples of this. Commissioned around the mid-twentieth century, the six homes that were built have had more than 350,000 visitors since their completion, and have influenced many architects over the years. These and other Modern residences tend to focus on humanizing the otherwise harsh ideal, making them more livable and ultimately more appealing to real people. Many of these designs use a similar tactic: blurring the line between indoor and outdoor spaces. This is achieved by embracing “the box” while at the same time dissolving it into the background with minimal structure and large glass walls. Some critics claim that these spaces remain too cold and static for the average person to function, however. The materials utilized in a large number of Modern homes are not hidden behind a softening facade. While this may make them somewhat less desirable for the general public, most modernist architects see this as a necessary and pivotal tenet of Modernism: uncluttered and purely Minimal design.
Modernist architecture has been more widely accepted as an appropriate residential style in Europe, where the populace is generally more exposed to culture and art than much of the world. This level of education imparts a tendency to accept new ideas while preserving their rich heritage, which is evidenced in the mix of new and old architecture, both intentional and unintentional, that one sees in many major European cities today. Also, one could argue that the numerous modern institutional and commercial buildings that permeate European countries have adjusted their denizens to this type of design; Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, for example, has been one of the best received modern pieces in history with over ten million visitors since its opening in 1997.
Modern architecture is usually characterized by:
- an adoption of the principle that the materials and functional requirements determine the result
- an adoption of the machine aesthetic
- an emphasis of horizontal and vertical lines
- a creation of ornament using the structure and theme of the building, or a rejection of ornamentation.
- a simplification of form and elimination of “unnecessary detail”
- an adoption of expressed structure
- Form follows function
A growing trend in modern architecture is the move towards sustainability of design. Most buildings generate an average of 3.9 pounds of waste per square foot. On a large building, that can add up to over one hundred tons. This has led many architects to develop ways to design structures that inherently have less waste, such as by creating spaces whose dimensions are based on standard material dimensions. Thus, constructors do not have to work the material into the proper shape, which saves both resources and money. In the United States, many new buildings are being designed to LEED standards with “green” details such as photovoltaic panels, green roofs, and natural lighting and ventilation.
- ^ Crouch, Christopher. 2000. “Modernism in Art Design and Architecture”, New York: St. Martins Press. ISBN 0312218303 (cloth) ISBN 031221832X (pbk)
- ^ Otto Wagner. Moderne Architektur: Seinen Schülern ein Führer auf diesem Kunstgebiete. Anton Schroll. 1902.
- ^ Otto Wagner. Translated by Harry Francis Mallgrave. Modern Architecture: A Guidebook for His Students to This Field of Art. Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities. 1988. ISBN 0226869385
- ^ Lucius Burckhardt (1987) . The Werkbund. ? : Hyperion Press. ISBN. Frederic J. Schwartz (1996). The Werkbund: Design Theory and Mass Culture Before the First World War. New Haven, Conn. : Yale University Press. ISBN.
- ^ Mark Jarzombek. “Joseph August Lux: Werkbund Promoter, Historian of a Lost Modernity,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 63/1 (June 2004): 202-219.
- ^ Meredith L. Clausen, 2005. The Pan Am building and the shattering of the Modernist Dream (Cambridge: MIT Press) (On-line analytical review)
- ^ Paul Adamson, AIA. “California Modernism: Models for Contemporary Housing” arcCa Archive accessed September 3, 2009.
- ^ Spier, Steven, and Martin Tschanz. Swiss Made. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2003. pg. 90.
- ^ “Guggenheim Bilbao” website accessed September 15, 2009.
- ^ Linda K. Monroe “Diverting Construction Waste” Buildings.com accessed September 9, 200
Source : wikipedia, free encyclopedia
Filed under: Arts & Architecture | Tags: architecture, history, prairie, style
The Prairie Style began in Chicago in the 1890’s and early 1900’s. The style is characterized by shallow pitched, hip roofs that have wide overhangs. The designs emphasize horizontal lines, and often have massive entries or porches. Frank Lloyd Wright was the master of this style although many other architects such as George W. Maher and Thomas E. Tallmadgemade important contributions as well. The style seemed to fade in popularity around 1920.
Prairie style houses usually have these features:
- Low-pitched roof
- Overhanging eaves
- Horizontal lines
- Central chimney
- Open floor plan
- Clerestory windows
About the Prairie Style:
Frank Lloyd Wright believed that rooms in Victorian era homes were boxed-in and confining. He began to design houses with low horizontal lines and open interior spaces. Rooms were often divided by leaded glass panels. Furniture was either built-in or specially designed. These homes were called prairie style after Wright’s 1901 Ladies Home Journal plan titled, “A Home in a Prairie Town.” Prairie houses were designed to blend in with the flat, prairie landscape.
The first Prairie houses were usually plaster with wood trim or sided with horizontal board and batten. Later Prairie homes used concrete block. Prairie homes can have many shapes: Square, L-shaped, T-shaped, Y-shaped, and even pinwheel-shaped.
Many other architects designed Prairie homes and the style was popularized by pattern books. The popular American Foursquare style, sometimes called the Prairie Box, shared many features with the Prairie style.
In 1936, during the USA depression, Frank Lloyd Wright developed a simplified version of Prairie architecture called Usonian. Wright believed these stripped-down houses represented the democratic ideals of the United States.
Famous Prairie Houses by Frank Lloyd Wright
- 1893: William Winslow Residence
River Forest, Illinois. Although this house uses ornamentation in the fashion of Louis Sullivan, it also shows elements of the new Prairie style. The house is a symmetrical rectangle.
- 1901: Frank W. Thomas House
Oak Park, Illinois. Widely considered Wright’s first Prairie Style house in Oak Park, and one of his earliest uses of stucco.
- 1902: Arthur Heurtley House
Oak Park, Illinois. This low, compact house has variegated brickwork with vibrant color and rough texture.
- 1909: Robie Residence (shown above)
This Frank Lloyd house in Chicago is widely considered Wright’s finest example of the Prairie style.
Banten is one of the young provinces in Republic of Indonesia. This region is situated in west Java. It can be reached about an hour from Jakarta. It’s feel unbelievable, after the busy toll-way and hectic Jakarta as metropolitan city; we enter small and charming Banten. This city has a lot of treasure to whom that likes history. Such as the ruins of Surosowan Palace, Kaibon Palace, ‘Masjid Agung Banten’ [Banten Great Mosque, enlisted in Moslem’s pilgrimage in Indonesia], Speelwijk fortress and Chinese temple Avalokiteshvara, and the harbor of Banten, Karanghantu [devil rock’s harbor] that still used nowadays already existed since centuries ago. From this place, Sultan Banten’s troopers took fight against the pirates and take defense from the Dutch.
Along with the prevailing regional government changing, in respect to the insistence of Banten People’s aspiration to demand the separation from West Java Province, and after long process based on Law Number 23 Year 2000 concerning on Formation of Banten Province dated 17th October, 2000, established Banten Province as the 30th Province. Banten Province consists of 4 Regencies and 2 Cities, 94 Districts, 128 sub districts and 1,339 Villages. Geographically, the location of Banten Province is strategic because of the link between Java Island and Sumatra Island as well as the capital of Republic of Indonesia and West Java Province as a potential market of Banten’s products.
The economic sector, that have a great potential resources and various to be developed, namely sectors in agriculture, industry/trade, tourism, mining/exploration, and also supported by the availability of variety natural resources in great amount. Industry sector contribute more than 52 % from total of Banten’s GRDP, because in Banten there are 17 Industrial Zones equipped by good facilities and managed by professional private companies.
Banten is one of the newest provinces in Indonesia and also one of the richest. The province combines many of the most important Industrial Zones in Indonesia and also has the extended recreation areas along the western coast of Java and in south the Ujung Kulon National Park and the mountainous areas that are home to the Baduy people. Banten has the easiest access to Jakarta being merely an enclave in this province.
This province uses its own unique culture and language, both called Sundanese that is also used to call its people. The ancient kingdoms of Banten are Tarumanegara, Pajajaran, Banten and Cirebon would make interesting studies for the student of archaeology. Cirebon is located on the border between West and Central Java, having a mixed culture originating from the ancient Cirebon and Banten kingdoms, resulting in similar customs and dialects of the two people, although Banten city is located at the extreme western part of the province. Banten city on Banten Bay was one of the first places to begin trade with the Dutch. There is little to see of the past glories of this area today with the exception of the Grand Mosque, which was completed in 1599 and is certainly worth a visit.
The Province has a great number of attractions, from the wildlife reserve of Ujung Kulon on the southwestern tip of Java and the isolated communities of the mysterious Baduy to the unspoiled beaches. The villages are busy and attractive and the pace of life gets slower as we move towards the National Park in the southwest. From any point along the western coast we can see the “son of Krakatau” volcano, which rises impressively from the sea. Banten offers many different recreational experiences. The trip to Anyer area from Jakarta is now quick and easy because of the toll road, which connects Merak port with Jakarta. As we move further south along the west Java coast the lifestyle becomes more relaxed and after Labuan we move into more rural areas where the road conditions worsen and the lifstyle is relaxed. Here access to the forest areas begins and we can move back in time and enjoy the peace of nature. There is a bus each day from Labuan to Taman Jaya, which is on the edge of Ujung Kulon national park. There are simple cabins can be hired and a ranger can then take us on a walk into the park. It takes about six hours to reach a camping site.
The total area of Banten is 8,800.83 Km2, consisting of 4 Regencies and 2 Cities, which are divided into as follows:
– Serang Regency: 1.724,09 km2 – Lebak Regency: 2.859,96 km2
– Pandeglang Regency: 2.746,88 km2
– Tangerang Regency: 1.110,38 km2
– Cilegon Town: 175,50 km2
– Tangerang Town: 177,20 km2 _Banten region is surrounded by Java Sea in the North. Sunda Straits in the West, and facing the India Ocean in the South. These make Banten as a region with very great of sea product resources.
Total population in 2001 was 8,258,055 persons, consists of 4,231,079 men (51.24%) and 4,026,976 (48.76%). The densely populated regency is in Tangerang with its total population 2,873,256 persons. The highest density Region is Tangerang City 7,362.26 persons/Km2 in 1990 until 2001 period. Population growth from increased at 2.99%/year. Total workforce or aged 15 years above in 2001 was 3,330,224 or 52.57%.
The coastal city of Banten, 75 kilometers west of Jakarta on the northern coast of Java, was one of the Asia’s
largest cosmopolitan trading harbors in the 16th and 17th century. Ships visited its port from Malacca, China, Vietnam, India, Arab, Portugal and Netherlands. At its peek, it was almost as important as Amsterdam. Nowadays Banten is only a small fishing village. There are still old buildings left which are worth a visit for someone who is interested in the history of Indonesia before and during the colonial times.
MASJID AGUNG BANTEN
Located at Kecamatan Kasemen, 10km from City Center of Serang, built first time at Sultan Maulana Hasanudin government on 1566M or 5 Zulhijah 966 H, and then the building continued by Sultan Maulana Yusuf era.
Total area is 13 Ha and almost over the mosque’s roof consist of 5 traps which height is about 23 m and is like a lighthouse.
In the past usually used as a lighthouse. Tiyamah (Paviliun) is the extension building which is placed at the South of Mosque and the form is square and rise up. At Golden Period of Banten Moslem Kingsom, this Pavilion was used as meeting room and discussion place about religion.
Around the mosque also placed the tomb of Sultan Banten and his family, like the tomb of Sultan Maulana Hasanudin, Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Sultan Abdul Mufasir Muhammad Aliyudin,etc.
This is one of the most interesting place to visit at Banten. You could see the Map to visit this interested place.
Other Places of Interest at Banten
Baduy Traditional Society
Baduy Traditional Society. In the area of 5,101 hectares consisting or two parts : inner and outer Baduy tribes. Live in harmony with nature, avoid modern life. It is located at Lebak Regency.
Keraton Surosowan (The Palace of Surosowan) was built during the reign of Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin (1525-1552). Most of buildings were partly totally damaged. What remains is only the wall of the fortress ciecling the ruin of the monument. According to the old maps it is known that in the past the complexes of the palace were surrounded by a ditch as a guard. It was said, that in the past small ship was able to sail along the ditch or along the canal to the open sea.
Tasikardi at Margasana village, Kramatwatu district is a part of arceological complex of Old Banten. Its width is approximatelly 5 hectares and in the cebter of the lake there is a square formed “islands”. During the period of the Kingdom of Banten, Tasikardi used irigate the recifields and as a water treatment system in Surosowan Palace.
Speelwijk Fortress is located at kampung Pamarican, around at Banten Gulf. In the past it was used as the fortress of the Sultanate of Banten, before the Deutch pene¬trated to and accupied Banten.
Ujung Kulon National Park
Ujung Kulon National Park. One of World Natural conservation as UNESCO declared. Observe the natural tropical forest, found the rare single horn rhino. The grazing area of buffaloes peacock and specific animals completed by beautiful islands around. There is a bus each day from Labuan to Taman Jaya which is on the edge of the Ujung Kulon national park. There simple cabins can be hired and a ranger can then take you on a walk into the park. It takes about six hours to reach a camping site. Food is not readily available so take some with you from Matahari in Labuan. Boats from and of the west.
Taman Jaya where the wood carving community, located nearby Ujung Kulon National Park.
Pulau Dua/Pulau Burung
Pulau Dua/Pulau Burung (Birds Island) is a natural bird conservation area for bird watching, located about 3 miles from the northern of Karangantu harbor. It can be reached by motorized pats or sail boats in 15 minutes. From April to August the island is visited by thousand of bird coming from the continent of Africa, Asia and Australia to lay and hatch their eggs. Soon after the young birds become mature, they will return to their original places. At least 50 kinds of birds and generally those are fishering birds that only to fly far distance such as herons, ducks, teals, fowis and other be able to lay 2-4 eggs, and stayed together in Pulau Dua of 8 hectares land.
The Tower of Bojong
The Tower of Bojong. Built in 1885 the Dutch, it is 75, 7 meter in height and it is an eighteen-story house light in Anyer Kidul. This area is an historical place. It is very well known for its 1000 km Daendles Post Road from Anyer to Panarukan (East Java) in 1811.
Karang Bolong Beach
Karang Bolong Beach is located 50 km from Serang town or 140 km from Jakarta, on Karang Bolong Street. Karang Bolong beach is the beach recreation area where there is a big rock with its hole in the center, facing the open sea.
The Hot Spring
The Hot Spring of Batu Kuwung. Its heat reaches 70-80 Fahrenheit degree. The hot water is iodized but it doesn’t contain any sulphur.
Mount Krakatau is located at Sunda Strait. This volcano is very well known all over the world because its eruption in 1883 shocked the world and had caused a big disaster. The eruption of Krakatau was so powerful and its sound was heard in Australia and Colombo. The new volcano began emerged to surface in 1928. In 1951 geologists recorded that the height of Anak Gunung Krakatau was just above 72 m dpl, but right now it’s already reached a height of more than 200 m.
Rangkasbitung in Lebak Regency is a center of souvenirs made of Opal (Batu kali maya) and Onyx.
Bumi Jaya in Serang Regency produce various kind of export quality potteries.
Shopping Center Unleash the sense of discovery and experience some of the Indonesia’s most sophisticated shopping malls in Tangerang and Cilegon.
Golf Courses. 11 golf course and 1 dri¬ving range all around Banten. The luxurious facilities, including 18 holes and first class accommodation.
Pulau Umang, white sandy beach over looking the crystal clear sea water, located 183 km about 4 hours driving by car and 5 min by boat from Jakarta, there is a resort and spa facilities to relax and living in nature with magnificient view of Krakatau and the Ujung Kulon National Park.
Keraton Kaibon (The Palace of Kaibon) It is located at the village of Kroya on the bank of the road of Old Banten, approximately 7 km from the town of Serang or 1 km from Surosowan Palace. The name Kaibon was derived from the word Kai-i¬buan namely Ratu Asiah, taking over his son’s position, Sultan Rafiudin who was just 5 months old to lead the reign.
Filed under: Indonesia Tourism
Jakarta is the capital city of the Republic of Indonesia, a country composed of more than 13,000 islands with a population of over 180 million. Comprising more than 300 ethnic groups speaking 200 different languages, the Indonesia population exhibits marked diversity in its linguistic, culture, and religious traditions. As the Capital City, Jakarta is a melting pot of representatives from each of these ethnic groups. Jakarta is a special territory enjoying the status of a province, consisting of Greater Jakarta, covering of 637.44 square km area. Located on the northern coast of West Java, it is the center of government, commerce and industry and has an extensive communications network with the rest of the country and the outside world. Strategically positioned in the archipelago, the city is also the principal gateway to the rest of Indonesia. From the Capital City, sophisticated land, air, and sea transport is available to the rest of the country and beyond.
Jakarta is one of Indonesia’s designated tourist areas. It is a gateway to other tourist destinations in Indonesia and is equipped with all the means of modern transportation by air, sea, rail, or by land. It has the largest and most modern airport in the country, the most important harbor in Indonesia and is well connected by rail of good roads to other destinations in Java, Sumatra, and Bali. As Indonesia’s main gateway, Soekarno-Hatta International Airport serves a growing number of international airlines and domestic flights. Jakarta is a city of contrasts; the traditional and the modern, the rich and the poor, the sacral and the worldly, often stand side by side in this bustling metropolis. Even its population gathered from all those diverse ethnic and cultural groups, which compose Indonesia, are constantly juxtaposed present reminder of the national motto; Unity in Diversity.
Finding its origin in the small early 16th century harbor town of Sunda Kelapa, Jakarta’s founding is thought to have taken place on June 22, 1527, when it was re-named Jayakarta, meaning Glorious Victory by the conquering Prince Fatahillah from neighboring Cirebon. The Dutch East Indies Company, which captured the town and destroyed it in 1619, changed its name into Batavia and made it the center for the expansion of their power in the East Indies. Shortly after the outbreak of World War II, Batavia fell into the hands of the invading Japanese forces that changed the name of the city into ‘Jakarta’ as a gesture aimed at winning the sympathy of the Indonesians. The name was retained after Indonesia achieved national independence after the war’s end.
The ethnic of Jakarta called “Orang Betawi” speaks Betawi Malay, spoken as well in the surrounding towns such as Bekasi and Tangerang. Their language, Betawi Malay, has two variations: conventional Betawi Malay, spoken by elder people and bred in Jakarta, and modern Jakarta Malay, a slang form spoken by the younger generation and migrants.
Jakarta’s architecture reflects to a large extent the influx of outside influences, which came and has remained in this vital seaport city. Taman Fatahillah Restoration Project, begun in the early 1970s has restored one of the oldest sections of Jakarta also known as Old Batavia to approximately its original state. The Old Portuguese Church and warehouse have been rehabilitated into living museums. The old Supreme Court building is now a museum of fine arts, which also houses part of the excellent Chinese porcelain collection of former Vice President Adam Malik. The old Town Hall has become the Jakarta Museum, displaying such rare items as Indonesia’s old historical documents and Dutch period furniture. Its tower clock was once returned to England to be repaired under its lifetime guarantee, which up to now has already lasted hundreds of years.
In recent years, Jakarta has expanded its facilities for visitors with luxury hotels, fine restaurants, exciting nightlife and modern shopping centers. It contains many tourist attractions such as Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (Beautiful “Indonesia in Miniature” Park), restored colonial period buildings, island resorts in the Pula Seribu (Thousand Island), and an extensive beach recreation complex called Ancol. “Beautiful Indonesia in Miniature Park” popularly called TMII “Taman Mini Indonesia Indah”, built to portray the variety of cultures found within the many islands contained in the Republic of Indonesia, this open-air museum comprises the many architectural forms of arts and traditions of all Indonesia provinces. It is proof of the country’s motto of Unity in Diversity as well as Freedom of Religion depicted in the houses of worship built on the grounds.
Jakarta has preserved its past and is developing for the future. Skyscrapers in the center of the city are part of a new look. Modern luxury hotels today cater to the discriminating visitors. Transport within the city is plentiful. Jakarta is the center of the nation’s industrial, political and cultural life. It is home to many of the country’s finest research institutes, educational facilities, and cultural organizations. Jakarta is uniquely the seat of both the national as well as the regional government.
Over the last several decades, Jakarta has proudly developed into one of Asia’s most prominent metropolitan centers. Today, Jakarta’s skyline is covered by modern high rises. The many state-of-the-art shopping centers, recreation complexes and toll-roads have become hallmarks of the city. The quality of life and the general welfare of its inhabitants have improved considerably with the city’s fast pace of development. Jakarta’s cultural richness and dynamic growth contribute significantly to its growing importance as one of the world’s leading capital cities.
The Province is geographically located on 6012′ South Latitude and 106048′- East Longitude. The government administration is set into 5 regions South Jakarta, Central Jakarta, East Jakarta, West Jakarta, North Jakarta and 1 regency/ administrative city, namely Thousand Island regency. The largest city is East Jakarta (187.73 sq km) and the smallest is Thousand Island regency (11.81 sq km). The average rainfall is 1,916.8- 924.50 mm/year. The temperature is between of 22 C – 33 C.
Indonesians are known as friendliest people in the world towards foreigners and most tolerant towards their manners. But there are few things, which are not done among Indonesia. They consider the head as something sacred that must be respected. Patting on the head is not done among adults. Calling someone by crooking the index finger is considered impolite and giving or receiving things with the left hand is no – where acceptable. The handshake accompanied with a smile is common among men and women greeting or welcoming somebody.
Not less 9 million people live in Jakarta representing nearly all the ethnic groups in the archipelago. The major groups are Sundanese, Javanese, Chinese, and the native community is Orang Betawi (people of Betawi). The other large groups are the Minangkabau people, the Bataks, the Manadonase, and the other people from Sulawesi and the Ambonase. Orang Betawi emerged in the 19th century from a melting pot of races, ethnic groups and cultures. They have their own culture distinct from other ethnics’ cultures. In 1923 they founded an organization called Kaum Betawi, which was in fact a statement about the existence of the Betawi ethnic group. The majority professes is Islam. But it does not mean that Indonesia is an Islamic state. It is a Pancasila state. And one of the principles of Pancasila, the state ideology, is “belief in the one Supreme God”. This means that the various belief systems must be respected and respect each other. This explains the ubiquitous Moslem prayer houses in the city beside many churches and a few temples.
In Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (Beautiful Indonesia in Miniature Park), the prince Diponegoro Mosque is juxtaposition with the saint Catherine Church, the Hallelujah Church, the Pura Penataran Agung Kertabumi Temple, the Aria Dwipa Arama Monastery and the Indonesian Mystic Convention Hall, symbolizing the motto: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Unity In Diversity) in matters of religions and belief – systems.
Indonesia’s cultural diversity is celebrated in the national motto, Bhineka Tunggal Ika, meaning “Unity in Diversity.” One manifestation of this tenet of Indonesian national identity is the government’s efforts to give equal precedence to the development of traditional art forms from each ethnic group. In Jakarta, Orang Betawi, the natives of the city, are considered to be the hosts of these cultures, having emerged from the melting pot of races, ethnic groups and cultures of Indonesia in the 19th century. Today they constitute one of the city’s main ethnic groups along side the Javanese (from Central and Eastern Java), Sundanese (from West Java) and Chinese.
To see for themselves what and now those Betawi art forms are, we can go to any travel agent and ask for tour to a ” Betawi Cultural Institution “to catch a glimpse of the real thing”. Or we can visit the Jakarta pavilion at Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (Beautiful Indonesia in Miniature Park) which has long been showing Betawi ceremonies such as the Betawi wedding ceremony, the circumcision procession, the baby head – shaving ceremony etc. As mentioned before, the Betawi group emerged in the 19th century from the melting pot of races, ethnic groups and cultures. Today the Betawi culture has a distinct personality of its own, but one can discern the various influences of other cultures by looking or listening to its art form.
The Tanjidor orchestra is certainly inherited from Dutch land – owners and the Gambang Kromong and Cokek dance originated in the residence of wealthy Chinese traders and merchants. The Betawi Cokek dance shows Balinese influence in the movement of the dancers and the style of playing the gamelan. This style of playing the gamelan can also be observed in the gamelan orchestra accompanying the Wayang Kulit Betawi show. The Portuguese speaking community has also left its inheritance, the Kroncong Tugu with its popular songs Nina Bobo, Kaparinyo and Kroncong moritsko is said to be the origin of the popular Kroncong orchestra of to day.
The Javanese presence since the 17th century has left its mark too on the Betawi music, dance and theatre; Wayang Kulit Betawi and Lenong are examples of this influence. A major influence on the Betawi culture is Islam, the religion of the majority of the people. The Rebana orchestra, the Gambus orchestra, the Zapin or Japin dance are Islam inspired art forms. The Betawi traditional art is developed and accepted well. Not only Betawi people, but also other ethnic groups are fond of this art. For example, the traditional drama-Lenong and Topeng Blantik (Blantik mask), the traditional dance – Tari Topeng (Mask Dance), Ondel-ondel, Ronggeng Topeng, etc, the traditional art of music – Sambrah, Rebana, Gambang Kromong, Tanjidor, Puppet – Betawi puppet using the Malay-Betawi dialect
Basically the marriage system used by Betawi people is the Islamic law. To whom they are allowed or have not allowed to get married with. The young people are also free to choose their partners. In spite of this, the parents` role either from the man’s or woman’s side are very important to approve the marriage, for the parents are involved in holding the marriage party. Before getting marriage the man and the woman are introduced to each other and when they both have agreement, the man’s parents will propose the girl. After the two parties reach an agreement, they decide the time to hold the dowry delivery ceremony which is usually represented by another party, such as the relatives of the man’s and the woman’s sides. The marriage ceremony is held on the agreed day. After the marriage contract ceremony both the man and the woman go back to each their parents (their home). A few days later a ceremony of parents-in-law relationship is held and the bridegroom goes in procession to the bride’s house. Before entering the bride’s house, the bridegroom’s side holds the question-answer ceremony by using the traditional poetry rhythm and it is accompanied by tambourine/rabana music with the welcome / marhaban songs. Then, the bridegroom is allowed to enter the house to meet the bride. They sit side by side for a moment. After that the bridegroom joins his parents and companions who escort him to the bride` house. When the ceremony is finished the bride may come with his husband to his house.
The official language is Bahasa Indonesia and English is the most spoken and understood foreign language. In convention hotels they have translators for English, France, Dutch, German, Japanese, Mandarin, and even Spanish. The native Betawi people speak Betawi Malay, which is different from standard Malay. There are variations in the language according to region, the Betawi Malay of the centre and that of the periphery. There are also socio – cultural variations. The older people born and bred in Jakarta speak the traditional Betawi Malay, while the younger people and migrants speak the modern version of the language. In the language, various influences from other cultures are apparent, Balinese, Sundanese, and Javanese influences are there and words derived from Arabic, Dutch, Chinese and Portuguese are easily recognizable. Betawi Malay is spoken not only in Jakarta, but also in parts of Bekasi, Tangerang and Bogor, which belong to the province of West Java.
Filed under: Arts & Architecture
Every year millions of visitors trek through Italy.. The allure is immediate even to those who have never been in Italy… There is more art and architecture to see in Italy than one person could possibly experience in a lifetime.. . Highlighted here are some of the must see designs of both ancient and modern Italy… At this talk we divided this subject to two parts 1) Art and artist. 2) Architecture
1. Leonardo Da Vinci
He was an Italian polymath, scientist, mathematician,engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, botanist, musician and writer. Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the Renaissance man, a man whose unquenchable curiosity was equaled only by his powers of invention.He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived.
This is his first painted called Baptism of Christ
and continue the early work called Annunciations
In the 1480s Leonardo received two very important commissions, and commenced another work which was also of ground-breaking importance in terms of composition.One of these paintings is that of St. Jerome in the Wilderness. And the fro this picture in his dairy was “I thought I was learning to live; I was only learning to die.
Leonardo’s most famous painting of the 1490s is The Last Supper